This TEST is required by law and assists the University in evaluating the performance of multiple emergency communication methods. All campuses are fully operational. This is only a TEST! Read more »

This University of Miami Style Guide specifies the editorial and graphic standards for the University of Miami.
This guide is intended to provide consistency in all promotional or informational publications of the University. It sets forth the principles that help the University achieve four necessary and sometimes difficult-to-reconcile objectives:

 
  • A University-wide editorial style that ensures consistency and accuracy in internal and external communications;
     
  • A distinctive design system that graphically reflects the character of the University and that is consistent throughout the range of publications and among all constituent groups;
     
  • A level of printing excellence that will satisfactorily convey to the reader the general quality of the University; and
     
  • Maximum economy with each dollar of our publishing budget.

    For further information, contact the Office of Communications and Marketing, Division of University Communications, at 1320 South Dixie Highway (Locator Code: 2990); 305-284-5600.

    Editorial Style Table of Contents
    Click on the links below to jump to the appropriate subject.
    Abbreviations
    Academic Degrees
    Addresses
    Apostrophe
    Business Reply Mail
    Capitalization and Titles
    Captions and Cutlines
    Colon
    Comma
    Computer Terminology
    Courtesy Titles
    Gender
    Hyphen
    Invitations
    Italics
    Nondiscrimination
    Numbers
    Period
    Physical or Mental Disability
    Quotation Marks
    Race and Ethnicity
    Semicolon
    Telephone Numbers

    Editorial Style

    Most editorial standards for University publications can be found in a few universally accepted references:

     
  • The editorial reference sources for publications are Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Tenth Edition and The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th Edition, published by the University of Chicago Press.
     
  • The editorial reference for business correspondence, invitations, programs, and other formal communication and protocol is Letitia Baldrige's New Complete Guide to Executive Manners.
     
  • An editorial reference for computer terminology is Webster's New World Dictionary of Computer Terms, Eighth Edition.
     
  • An additional helpful reference book is Talking About People: A Guide to Fair and Accurate Language.

    University usage that differs from these reference books, additional University references, and answers to frequently asked style questions are presented below. For more detailed information about style and usage pertaining to the School of Medicine, consult the University of Miami School of Medicine Style and Usage Guide.

    Abbreviations

    In general, abbreviations should be used sparingly or avoided entirely, including the abbreviation UM. Never use U.M., U. of M., UofM, U/M, or U-M. Use University of Miami or University.

    Scholarly abbreviations should be used only in footnotes or bibliographies. Abbreviations of parts of a book, article, or series of books should be in lowercase.

    Examples:
    app., fig., sec., supp., vol.


    Abbreviate familiar governmental divisions, agencies, unions, and associations. Use capital letters, omit periods, and do not space between letters.

    Examples:
    UNESCO, YMCA



    Less familiar organizations should be written out and their acronyms put in parentheses in first usage. Only after the first reference should the initials be used alone. Use capital letters, omit periods, and do not space between letters.

    Examples:
    Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies (CIMAS)

    Organization of American States (OAS)


    Use an ampersand (&) only when it is part of the correct corporate or organizational title. Never use an ampersand instead of the word and in text or in lists.

    Examples:
    Cherry Bekaert & Holland

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology


    Abbreviate and lowercase a.m. and p.m. Use periods but no spaces.

    Examples:
    8 a.m.

    10:30 p.m.


    Do not abbreviate street, avenue, boulevard, circle, drive, or road in addresses (in text or in return addresses). Spell out North, East, West, and South in addresses. An exception is S.W., N.E., N.W., etc., when used in addresses.

    Examples:
    South Dixie Highway
    1540 Corniche Avenue
    113 S.E. Third Street
    Turn at the corner of Third Street and S.W. 15th Aven


    Do not abbreviate the names of cities, states, or countries in text and business stationery. An exception is cities that include St. as an abbreviation for Saint. Additionally, when United States is used as an adjective, it may be abbreviated.

    Examples:
    Miami, Florida 33133
    Fort Lauderdale but St. Louis
    Florida, North Carolina, Georgia
    United States, United Kingdom
    Citizen of the United States
    United States citizen or U.S. citizen


    Avoid abbreviations that are unclear or awkward.

    Examples:
    College of Engineering not CoE
    College of Arts and Sciences not A&S or CASA
    School of Business Administration not SoB


    In some instances, years may be abbreviated by the last two digits preceded by an apostrophe (not the opening single quotation mark). Decades should be spelled out and lowercased. The first through tenth centuries should be spelled out and lowercased; others may use numerals.

    Examples:
    Class of '81 but not Class of '81
    the twenties or the 1920s but not the '20s
    second century, 18th century




    Academic Degrees

    Abbreviate and capitalize academic degrees, according to proper editorial style. Use periods and no spaces in abbreviations. Use the degree after the name sparingly, only when it provides more pertinent information or when credentials are necessary.

    Examples:
    Ann Smith, M.B.A.
    John Jones, M.F.A.
    Margaret Stein, Ph.D.
    Mark Thalen, M.D.
    Maria Rodriguez, J.D., LL.M.


    When the degree and the graduation year are used together, offset with commas not parentheses.

    Examples:
    Ann Smith, M.D. '76, was the guest lecturer at the conference.


    Use capitals for the degree title but not for the subject; an exception is when the subject is part of the formal degree title.

    Examples:
    Bachelor of Science in physics
    Master of Professional Accounting
    Doctor of Arts in international affairs
    Bachelor of Fine Arts in painting
    Executive Master of Business Administration
    Bachelor of Music
    Juris Doctor


    No capitals are used when academic degrees are referred to in general terms such as doctorate, bachelor's degree, or master's degree.

    Examples:
    Gina received her bachelor's degree in 1977.
    Getting one's doctorate is hard work.
    Paolo has earned bachelor's and master's degrees in art.


    Note: The University of Miami awards the A.B. degree, not the B.A.

    Addresses

    This style and sequence should be used for addresses:

    Examples:
    Name of Addressee
    Title
    Division or Department
    College or School
    University of Miami
    Box Number
    Coral Gables, Florida Zip Code


    Each department has been assigned a locator code by the University. For all internal correspondence, the locator code should be used. A department's locator code also should be included as the last four digits in its nine-digit zip code.

    Zip code for the Coral Gables campus is 33124+locator code. Zip code for the medical campus is 33101+locator code. Zip code for the Rosenstiel campus is 33149+locator code.

    Zip codes used with street addresses for delivery of overnight mail and/or packages are as follows:

    Examples:
    Coral Gables campus: 33146
    Medical campus: 33136
    Rosenstiel campus: 33149


    (Exceptions to the foregoing apply to business reply mail, which must be prepared according to specifications set by the U.S. Postal Service. See further down for more information.)

    Apostrophe

    When a proper name is in italic type, its possessive is in Roman type.

    Examples:
    The Taming of the Shrew's opening performance.
    Newsweek's coverage of world events.


    No apostrophe is used with dates or when forming plurals of acronyms.

    Examples:
    1890s, 1920s, 1990s

    FTEs, ABCs, CEUs




    Business Reply Mail

    Always use all capital letters, no punctuation, and no abbreviations for business reply mail.

    Coral Gables campus
    (Note the use of Miami in place of Coral Gables.)
    Postcards:
    UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI
    SCHOOL, COLLEGE, OR DEPARTMENT
    BOX NUMBER
    MIAMI, FLORIDA 33124-9973

    Letters (up to two ounces):
    UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI
    SCHOOL, COLLEGE, OR DEPARTMENT
    BOX NUMBER
    MIAMI, FLORIDA 33124-9965

    Letters (over two ounces):
    UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI
    SCHOOL, COLLEGE, OR DEPARTMENT
    BOX NUMBER
    MIAMI, FLORIDA 33124-9972

    Medical campus
    UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI
    SCHOOL, DEPARTMENT, OR HOSPITAL
    MIAMI, FLORIDA 33101-9966

    Rosenstiel campus
    UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI
    SCHOOL OR DEPARTMENT
    BOX NUMBER
    MIAMI, FLORIDA 33149

    Capitalization and Titles

    Excessive use of capital letters should be avoided. Capitalize an official name but not part of a name.

    Examples:
    Department of Chemistry but chemistry department
    Faculty Senate but the senate
    Commencement Committee but the committee
    Board of Trustees but the board
    Phillip and Patricia Frost School of Music but the school
    Department of Medicine but the department
    Diabetes Research Institute but the institute


    Use capital letters for committee names, organization names, endowed chairs, centers, institutes, etc. Always use the full name on first reference; an official shortened version may be used on second reference.

    Examples:
    James L. Knight Chair in Communication can be Knight Chair
    Lowe Art Museum can be Lowe Museum
    James L. Knight International Center can be Knight Center
    Bascom Palmer Eye Institute can be Bascom Palmer
    The Jerry Herman Ring Theatre and Alvin Sherman Family Stage can be The Jerry Herman Ring Theatre not Ring Theatre
    L. Austin Weeks Center for Recording and Performance can be Weeks Center
    University of Miami Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center can be UM/Sylvester
    Miami Veterans Affairs Medical Center can be Miami VA Medical Center or Miami VA
    University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Medical Center can be UM/Jackson not Jackson


    When referring to the University of Miami on second reference, the word University is capitalized even when used alone. Do not capitalize university when referring to universities in general.

    Examples:
    Mary, a University of Miami graduate, has fond memories of the University.

    A private university offers the best education.


    Use capital letters for a course of study or subject only when it is used in a department name, with a course number, or when includes a proper noun or adjective. No quotation marks are used for course titles when the number and area of study are given; quotation marks are used for course titles in text.

    Examples:
    He studies history and English.
    Department of History
    History 202
    English 215, English and American Literature by Women
    She is taking "History of Western Civilization."
    Irish literature
    Irish Literature 201


    Use initial capital letters for titles whether standing alone, in quotation marks, or in italics. A, in, of, and other junction words are capitalized only at the beginning or end of a title.

    Examples:
    Smith presented "An Approach to Urban Revitalization" at the symposium.

    The Jerry Herman Ring Theatre will produce Hamlet.


    In general, capitalize a complete sentence or thought following a colon; lowercase a series or phrase.

    Examples:
    He provided the following directions: Turn right at the corner, then turn left at the light.
    The following classes were listed: mathematics, history, music.
    The message was clear: You can't go home again.


    Use capitals and quotation marks for a title that exists independently.

    Examples:
    "Neighborhood Planning in Historical Perspective," a conference sponsored by the School of Architecture, was held in Miami, Florida.


    Use capitals for a title preceding a name but not for one following a name.

    Examples:
    Professor of Internal Medicine Jeanne Feinberg
    Julio Vargas, professor of internal medicine
    Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson
    Luan Huang, vice president for finance


    Use capitals for named professorships and fellowships. Otherwise, scholar and fellow are lowercased.

    Examples:
    Fulbright-Hays Fellowship or Scholar but a Fulbright scholar

    Patricia Roberts Harris Fellowship but a Harris fellow


    Refer to Florida or the state; lowercase state except when used to denote the official governing body.

    Examples:
    the Florida Legislature
    The state of Florida has a mild climate.
    The State of Florida will raise sales taxes.
    the state's attorney


    Use capital letters and no apostrophe for Continuing Education Units.

    Examples:
    Continuing Education Units (CEUs)


    Use lowercase for seasons of the year even if linked with a title.

    Examples:
    fall semester classes
    spring semester
    fall 1997
    I think spring and fall are the best seasons.


    Be formal when referring to named units that are part of the University. Many buildings, laboratories, auditoriums, courtyards, endowed chairs, lecture series, etc., are named for individuals, foundations, or corporations whose contributions helped make them possible. Always use the full name on first reference; an official shortened version may be used only on second reference.

    Examples:
    James W. McLamore Plaza can be McLamore Plaza
    James L. Knight Physics Building can be Knight Physics Building
    Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science can be Rosenstiel School
    Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center can be UM/Sylvester
    Richard A. Hausler Endowed Chair can be Hausler Chair
    William L. McKnight Building can be McKnight Building
    The Jerry Herman Ring Theatre and Alvin Sherman Family Stage can be The Jerry Herman Ring Theatre
    Founders Hall (no apostrophe on Founders)
    The Dr. John T. Macdonald Foundation, on first reference. On second reference, the foundation but not the Macdonald Foundation.


    The only colleges or schools that have approved shortened versions for second reference are the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science and the Phillip and Patricia Frost School of Music. The correct second references are the Rosenstiel School and the Frost School. Do not use the RSMAS acronym or School of Music.

    Examples:
    Rosenstiel School not RSMAS

    Frost School not School of Music


    The official location of the medical campus is the University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Medical Center. The correct second reference is UM/Jackson. Do not use Jackson.

    The approved references for the University's four campuses include:
    Coral Gables campus
    medical campus
    Rosenstiel campus
    South campus

    Captions and Cutlines

    When identifying subjects in photographs, set off directionals with commas. Never use italics.

    Examples:
    Ann Smith, left, attended the event.


    In captions and cutlines, use a colon at the beginning of a sentence.

    Examples:
    Overleaf:
    Left to right:
    Clockwise:




    Colon

    Do not use a colon before a listing when the lead-in ends with a verb. Use a colon before a listing when its preceding clause or words would constitute a complete sentence without the listing.

    Examples:
    For further information, contact
    University Advancement
    William L. McKnight Building


    Classes will be in the following subjects:

    Examples:
    history
    English
    French


    Use a colon between time, between volume and page reference, and between place of publication and publisher's name.

    Examples:
    4:40 p.m.
    12:280
    New York: Harper & Row, 1997




    Comma

    Use a comma between the two independent clauses of a compound sentence. A comma precedes the conjunctions and, but, or, nor, for, so, and yet if the second half of the sentence contains its own subject, verb, and object.

    Examples:
    The Lowe Art Museum is on Stanford Drive, and it contains many interesting examples of Spanish painting.
    but
    The Rathskeller is on the edge of the lake and is open for the convenience of students.


    Use commas in a series of three or more; a comma is placed after the next-to-the-last element in the series.

    Examples:
    Faculty members represented many disciplines such as geography, political science, law, history, and sociology.


    Use commas after introductory elements, interjections, and direct addresses.

    Examples:
    If the research grant is awarded, we will begin at once.
    Oh, I have one more question.
    In addition, we will write the article.
    John, let me see the letter.


    Do not use commas after short, introductory adverbial phrases.

    Examples:
    Since 1997 I have accrued 30 credits in English.
    In May more than 2,500 students graduated from the University.
    In 2015 the comet will pass this way again.


    Use a comma between the day and year in dates. Use a comma after the year for dates in sentences.

    Examples:
    November 7, 1957
    She was born November 7, 1957, to a wealthy family in Peru.
    In July 1984 I moved to Miami.


    When a city and state or city and country are used in text, use a comma between the two and following the state or country.

    Examples:
    The University was founded in Coral Gables, Florida, in 1926.

    The student chose Paris, France, for summer study.


    No commas are used between month and year or between season and year.

    Examples:
    April 1983 but April 21, 1983

    fall 1983


    Do not use a comma before Jr. and Sr. when part of an individual's formal name.

    Examples:
    Michael E. Smith Jr.

    Carlos de la Cruz Sr.




    Computer Terminology

    Use computer terms properly and consistently. Examples of commonly used terms follow. For definitions and more terms, see Webster's New World Dictionary of Computer Terms, Eighth Edition.

    ASCII
    browser
    CD-ROM
    cyberspace
    database
    dot-com
    download
    e-mail
    Ethernet
    FAQ
    FTP
    home page
    HTML
    http
    hypertext
    hyperlink
    HyperText Markup Language
    internet (The lowercased word refers to a group of local area networks that have been connected by means of a common communication protocol.)
    Internet (The uppercased word refers to the system of linked computer networks, worldwide in scope, that facilitates data communication services.)
    LAN
    LISTSERV
    login
    modem
    network
    offline
    on-board
    online
    search engine
    upload
    URL
    web (The lowercased word refers to a set of related documents that make up a hypertext presentation; it is synonymous with "site.")
    Web (The uppercased word refers to the World Wide Web.)
    Webmaster
    Web page
    Web site
    World Wide Web


    When citing Web addresses in University brochures, it is sufficient to begin with www and to omit http://.

    Examples:
    www.miami.edu not http://www.miami.edu


    Use the phrase "log on to" (as opposed to "log onto") to direct readers to a Web site.

    Examples:
    Log on to www.miami.edu to learn more about the University of Miami.




    Courtesy Titles

    Do not use courtesy titles in publications (brochures, case statements, booklets, directories, etc.).

    Examples:
    Hernandez not Dr. Hernandez
    Ted Guntz not Mr. Ted Guntz
    Sharon Parker not Ms. Sharon Parker


    The preferred usage in periodicals (magazines, newspapers, and newsletters) is to eliminate courtesy titles in text material in all references. (See exceptions noted below.)

    Examples:
    James Smith not Dr. James Smith

    Pamela Shafer not Ms. Pamela Shafer


    In listings, addresses, etc., do not use Mrs. (unless the woman is using her husband's name).

    Examples:
    Mrs. John Smith or Mary Smith not Mrs. Mary Smith


    Dr., Mr., Mrs., or Ms. may be used in first and second references in periodicals if the references serve to avoid confusion. Never use Miss.

    Examples:
    President and Mrs. Ashe attended the reception. Mrs. Ashe presented an award.


    Never use courtesy title and degree together.

    Examples:
    John Jones, M.D., presented a paper. Jones is a graduate of the University.
    not
    Dr. John Jones, M.D., presented a paper.




    Gender

    Include all people in general references by substituting nonsexual words and phrases for male-biased, exclusionary words. (An excellent reference book is Talking About People: A Guide to Fair and Accurate Language by Rosalie Maggio.)

    Refer to women and men equally and keep references consistent.

    The word gender and sex have entirely different meanings. Always use the correct word.

    Avoid using man or woman as a suffix or prefix. Use person instead, or change the construction. For example, chair or chairperson instead of chairman, and business executive instead of businessman.

    Use parallel grammar when referring to people by gender ("his or her employer" rather than "his employer").

    Grant equal respect to women and men.

    Use generic titles or descriptions for both women and men.

    Base description on pertinent qualities, not on gender.

    Do not use adjectives that are irrelevant and/or condescending (shapely, effeminate, lovely, macho, pretty, handsome).

    Hyphen

    Consult the dictionary to confirm hyphenation. In general, avoid the use of hyphens unless the result is awkward or confusing.

    Examples:
    coworker, freelance, cooperate, inpatient, statewide, nonresident, noncredit, nonprofit, biweekly, coauthor, postdoctoral, kickoff
    but
    full-time, part-time


    Consult the dictionary to avoid common spelling errors in compound words.

    Examples:
    health care not healthcare

    workplace not work place


    In University usage, the word fundraising does not require a hyphen. Do not use the word fundraiser.

    Examples:
    The job offers fundraising opportunities.

    The dean is good at fundraising. not The dean is a fundraiser.


    Hyphens are used when the base word begins with a capital letter.

    Examples:
    non-Hispanic
    non-American
    anti-Semitic


    Never break a hyphenated word in another place.

    Examples:
    self-knowledge not self-knowl-edge


    Do not allow a single letter of a word to stand alone at the beginning or end of a line. Force the entire word to the next line.

    Examples:
    not E-gyptian

    not a-lone


    Hyphenate when the meaning varies with the absence of punctuation.

    Examples:
    re-cover varies from recover

    re-create varies from recreate


    Use a hyphen for first-professional or when referring to levels of residency or enrollment.

    Examples:
    first-professional degree
    second-year resident
    third-year law student


    Hyphenate compound adjectives before a noun. Do not hyphenate compound adjectives when the first word ends in ly.

    Examples:
    He is a first-rate golfer.

    her rapidly rising heart rate but not her rapidly-rising heart rate




    Invitations

    Informal and formal invitation styles may be used, depending on the nature of the event.

    Formal:
    For occasions such as commencement, the dedication of a building, a presidential reception, and the like, a formal invitation style is in order.

    Examples:

    Donna E. Shalala
    President of the University of Miami
    and
    Phillip Frost
    Chairman of the Board of Trustees
    request the pleasure of your company
    at a reception
    to honor the members of the

    Society of University Founders

    on
    Wednesday, the eighteenth of October
    from six-thirty to eight-thirty o'clock

    Lowe Art Museum
    University of Miami
    1301 Stanford Drive
    Coral Gables, Florida

    R.S.V.P. Card Enclosed
    Valet Parking
    Map Enclosed


    The R.S.V.P. card and other enclosures cite the date, time, and other elements in the same formal style.

    For details, consult Letitia Baldrige's New Complete Guide to Executive Manners.

    Informal:
    Printed invitations for more casual gatherings may follow an informal style.

    Examples:

    The University of Miami Alumni Association
    is proud to present the

    Distinguished Alumni Lecture Series

    All Things Are Possible...Pass The Word

    Barbara Milo Ohrbach
    talks about her journey from the boardroom
    to the best-seller list


    Tuesday, December 5, 2000
    6 p.m.

    The University Club
    One West 54th Street
    New York, New York

    R.S.V.P. card enclosed
    Reception following the lecture
    Limited seating



    Again, enclosures are worded similarly to the invitation.

    For details, consult Letitia Baldrige's New Complete Guide to Executive Manners.

    Italics

    Use italics for titles of plays, television shows, motion pictures, books, journals, magazines, newspapers, newsletters, and long poems published as books. Also use italics for musical works; for titles of operas, oratorios, motets, tone poems, and other long musical compositions; and for works of art. Titles of short works, magazine articles, television episodes, speeches, papers, and unpublished works are in quotation marks.

    Examples:
    The Cosby Show and Late Night with David Letterman
    Hitchcock's The Birds and Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange
    Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird and Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea
    Journal of Psychology and the New England Journal of Medicine
    The Miami Herald and The New York Times
    People, TV Guide, Vanity Fair, and Esquire
    Professor Jones presented "Our Aging Society" at the convention.
    She published "My Life as an Undergraduate" in Glamour magazine.
    I watched the rerun of the "End of the Game" episode of Hawaii Five-O.


    Use italics for the titles of gallery and museum exhibitions.

    Examples:
    Abstraction and Isolation at the Lowe Art Museum

    The National Gallery's Isolation and Abstraction exhibition


    Use italics for isolated words and phrases in a foreign language if they are likely to be unfamiliar to readers.

    Examples:
    Many ostraka were dug up during excavation.


    Use italics to refer to words as words and to single out terms as terms.

    Examples:
    The word cacophony

    The term gothic


    Italics are not necessary for familiar foreign words.

    Examples:
    a priori, mea culpa, in vitro, in vivo, ad hoc, cum laude


    Do not italicize conjunctions or other words separating titles in sentences.

    Examples:
    I read Ann Tyler's Breathing Lessons and The Accidental Tourist.


    Be sure to cite the proper name of a publication.

    Examples:
    The Miami Herald
    Milwaukee Journal Sentinel
    Miami Daily Business Review
    The Washington Post




    Nondiscrimination

    The University of Miami's publications should stand up to scrutiny from the perspective of women, minorities, individuals with physical or mental disabilities, veterans, or any other person whose employment rights are guaranteed by the law. Equal respect and a balanced representation should be given in visual media to gender, race, ethnic group, age, sexual orientation, and ability.

    All promotional materials distributed to individuals outside the University community must contain a statement reflecting the University's policy on Affirmative Action: "An Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer."

    Numbers

    Spell out numbers one through ten except in statistical matter. Use figures for 11 and above. This also applies to adjectival numbers.

    Examples:
    ninth
    11th
    The first three parking lots will provide spaces for 540 cars.
    The new house is 80 percent finished; the interest rate is 9.25 percent.


    If used at the beginning of a sentence, all numbers are spelled out.

    Examples:
    Thirty-five people attended the seminar.
    Fifty percent of the respondents voted in favor of the measure.
    Nineteen eighty-four was a very good year.


    Do not abbreviate years in the 21st century. The exception is class year designations.

    Examples:
    1999-2000 not 1999-00
    The new program will commence in fall of 2004.
    A reception for the class of '00 will be held immediately after commencement.


    Use numbers for parts of a book.

    Examples:
    For further data refer to figure 9 and table 2 on page 8.


    With o'clock, spell out the time of day in text material, but use numbers with a.m. or p.m. Periods are used in a.m. and p.m. Avoid redundancy.

    Examples:
    The meeting is at nine o'clock in the evening.
    The meeting is at 9 p.m.
    12 p.m. or noon but not 12 noon
    8 p.m. but not 8 p.m. in the evening


    When making a reference to time, do not use zeros for the hour in text. An exception may be made when times are used in tabulation.

    Examples:
    The bus stops here between 3 and 3:30 p.m.

    Buses stop running at 9 p.m.


    Spell out decades.

    Examples:
    the thirties or the 1930s but not the '30s


    Use figures to precede academic credits in catalog course descriptions.

    Examples:
    Beginning French 101

    Lecture and Laboratory: 60 hours, 4 credits


    Use figures to precede academic credits in text.

    Examples:
    The course counts as 3 credits in the humanities.


    Use figures for phone numbers. Area code is separated by a hyphen, not by parentheses.

    Examples:
    305-284-5600

    800-555-1212



    In citing percentages or millions of dollars, use the figure followed by percent or million spelled out. Remember that percentage is the word to use when no figure is cited. Additionally, do not split the numeral from percent or million on a line or page.

    Examples:
    4 percent
    $4 million but two million volumes and 54 million people
    Ashley owns 7 percent of the farm; however, Victor owns a larger percentage.


    Use of the phrase "No. 1" is acceptable to denote ranking.

    Examples:
    The Miami Hurricanes football team again was ranked No. 1 during the preseason.




    Period

    Always use the period inside quotation marks. Use the period inside parentheses or brackets when the matter enclosed is an independent sentence forming no part of the preceding sentence; otherwise, the period goes outside.

    Examples:
    Philip said, "Go inside, now."
    There was no reaction. (The woman could barely hear.)
    Buy a vehicle (car, truck, or boat).


    Use periods after abbreviated degrees.

    Examples:
    B.S., Ph.D., M.Ed.


    Do not use periods after acronyms or broadcasting stations.

    Examples:
    NAACP, AFL-CIO, NASA

    WLRN-FM, WWBT-TV, WCYB




    Physical or Mental Disability

    Separate the person from the disability and recognize that persons with disabilities have rights, among them the right to privacy.

    Treat persons with disabilities with respect in publications, and avoid stereotyping persons by occupation or attribute.

    Quotation Marks

    Use quotation marks for short musical works, poems not published as a separate book, unpublished works, titles of theses, and titles of papers.

    Examples:
    "The Road Not Taken"

    "Moon River"


    No quotation marks are used when course titles are used as headings or in an announcement of an event.

    Examples:
    Fundamentals of Finance



    Race and Ethnicity

    Be aware of and avoid words, images, and situations that suggest that all or most members of a racial or ethnic group are the same.

    Avoid using qualifiers that reinforce racial and ethnic stereotypes. Avoid using ethnic clich├ęs.

    Be aware of possible negative implications of color-symbolic words. Choose language and usage that do not offend people or reinforce bias.

    Be aware of language that, to some, has questionable racial or ethnic connotations. Avoid patronizing and tokenism with regard to any racial or ethnic group.

    Review visual and written material to see if all groups are fairly represented.

    Semicolon

    Use a semicolon in listings of phrases that contain commas.

    Examples:
    The library contains an extensive microfilm and microfiche collection; an audiovisual department; facilities for online research, photocopying, and studying; and archives and special collections.


    Use a semicolon in joining main clauses not joined by a coordinating conjunction.

    Examples:
    The new house is almost complete; the interest rate is 9.25 percent.



    Telephone Numbers

    Use the figures only, without the word telephone preceding them. Area code is not enclosed in parentheses but is followed by a hyphen.
    305-284-3082

    An exception to the previous rule is when both the telephone number and the fax number are given. Use the following format for such instances.
    Telephone: 305-284-3082
    Fax: 305-284-2035

    In all internal communications use the entire seven digits of the phone number. Do not use the word extension or the abbreviation ext. in telephone references. In external communications always include the area code.

    Visual Style

    FOR THE VISUAL STYLE GUIDE VISIT: http://www.miami.edu/umidentity